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Welcome to StudyDrugs!

Learn about the common study drugs used by students in colleges and universities all around the world that are proven to increase motivation, enhance cognition, improve memory and heighten your concentration.
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Modalert, Strattera, Nootropil, Adderall, Ritalin, Dexedrine

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Modalert

Modalert (generic name: MODAFINIL) is a memory-improving and mood-brightening psychostimulant. It is thought to work by affecting certain chemicals in the brain that control the sleep/wake cycle and is proven to enhance wakefulness, attention capacity and vigilance. Increasing numbers of students use Modalert as it's relatively easy to obtain online compared to other study drugs and the benefits of using Modafinil as a neuroenhancer are substantial and proven. It's consumption at several leading American and British universities is quite common among students seeking a competitive edge in exams, where drug-testing is not yet routine.

There are a number of significant differences between Modafinil and traditional cognitive enhancers such as Ritalin and Adderall. Subjectively, it feels a lot smoother and cleaner. It is also much less likely to cause feelings of anxiety, jitteriness or excessive locomotor activity. The instance of hypersomnolent 'rebound effect' is also much lower.

Modafinil is often used to help people stay awake during work for people with work schedules that interfere with a normal sleep routine (shift work sleep disorder). It is also used in the treatment of sleep disorders such as narcolepsy & sleep apnea.

The US military are interested in Modafinil too. It was reportedly used by Allied combat soldiers in both Gulf Wars and Iraq. It was also used by Astronauts on the International Space Station.

Experimentally, Modafinil is used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease; depression; attention-deficit disorder (ADHD); myotonic dystrophy; chronic fatigue; amnesia and jet-lag.

Dosage

The recommended dose of Modafinil or Modalert is 200 mg given once a day.

Doses up to 400 mg/day, given as a single dose, have been well tolerated, but there is no consistent evidence that a higher dose delivers additional benefit beyond that of the 200 mg dose. Modafinil is non-addictive and the elimination half-life is 12 - 15 hours.

Take Modafinil by mouth with or without food, usually once daily in the morning or the afternoon. If you are using Modafinil for shift work sleep disorder, take it 1 hour before you start your work shift .

Side Effects

The most commonly observed adverse events (less than 5%) associated with the use of Modafinil were headache, nausea, nervousness, rhinitis, diarrhea, back pain, anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, and dyspepsia.

Consult a doctor immediately if any of these rare but serious side effects occur: mental/mood changes (e.g., agitation, confusion, depression, abnormal thoughts, hallucinations).

Seek immediate medical attention if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: chest pain, fast/pounding/irregular heartbeat, signs of infection (e.g., fever, persistent sore throat).

A very serious allergic reaction to this cognitive enhancing drug are rare. However, stop taking this medication and seek immediate medical attention if you notice any of the following symptoms of a serious allergic reaction: rash, itching/swelling (especially of face/tongue/throat), skin blisters/peeling, severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

Contraindications and warnings

It is important to consult with your physician before using Modafinil, particularly for those with:

- Hypersensitivity to the drug or other constituents of the tablets (wheat gluten),

- Previous cardiovascular problems, particularly while using other stimulants,

- Cardiac conditions, particularly: Left ventricular hypertrophy and Mitral valve prolapse.

Before using Modafinil, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and nonprescription/herbal products you may use, especially of medications for high blood pressure. For example beta blockers such as: Atenolol or metoprolol, guanabenz, clonidine, methyldopa, prazosin, "blood thinners" (e.g. warfarin), street drugs (e.g. methamphetamine, MDMA-"ecstasy"), alternative central nervous system stimulating study drugs (e.g. ritalin, adderall, dexedrine) drugs that affect liver enzymes that remove Modafinil from the body (e.g., azole antifungals such as itraconazole/ketoconazole, rifamycins such as rifabutin/rifampin, anti-seizure medications such as carbamazepine/phenobarbital).

Modafinil can speed up or slow down the removal of other drugs from your body by affecting certain liver enzymes. These affected drugs may include certain antidepressants (e.g. TCAs such as clomipramine or desipramine, SSRIs such as fluoxetine, fluvoxamine), cyclosporine, diazepam, phenytoin, propranolol, theophylline, triazolam.

Avoid taking MAO inhibitors (e.g., furazolidone, isocarboxazid, linezolid, moclobemide, phenelzine, procarbazine, selegiline, tranylcypromine) within 2 weeks before, during, and after treatment with Modafinil. In some cases a serious (possibly fatal) drug interaction may occur.

Strattera

Strattera (generic name: ATOMOXETINE) is a medication that's approved to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is proven to increase the users ability to pay attention, stay focused, concentrate and not fidget.
Strattera is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) and works by restoring the balance of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine which is a naturally occuring chemical in the body involved in stress responce and nerve cell communications. The drug was originally developed by Eli lilly who intended it for use as an antidepressant but found to be more effective at treating ADHD and it was approved for medical use in 2002. Since then more than 50 million doses have been prescribed in the United States alone.

Unlike other study drugs such as Adderall and Ritalin (which are both Schedule II controlled drugs), Strattera is not a controlled substance as it is considerd a non-stimulant medication. As a consequence, it has far less abuse potential and is not thought to be addictive. It also has fewer side effects than traditional ADHD drugs. Users report that unlike other psychostimulant ADHD drugs, whose effects can be felt shortly after taking the medication, the positive effects of Strattera usually start being noticed from a few days to a week after you start taking the drug regularly. It's patent expired in 2017 and generic versions of the drug can now quite easily be found online at a fraction of the price once charged for the drug by Eli Lilly.

How to use Strattera

Strattera should be taken regularly to get the maximum benefits from it and at the same time(s) each day. It can be taken on an empty stomach or with food and is usually taken once a day in the morning but may be taken twice a day with the second dose late in the afternnon or early evening. Taking it too late in the day has been linked to insomnia. For most people, one daily dose in the morning is sufficient and taking a second daily dose is dependent on the users responce or lack of responce to one daily dose. Another factor to take into consideration when planning a second daily dose is the potential interaction of any other drugs being taken. For adult weighing 70kg or over, the initial daily dose is 40mg once a day. This can be increased to 40mg twice a day if the drugs effects are not being experienced after a week. The most common reason why users don’t experience the optimal benefits of Strattera is the high level of side effects, which prevents people from taking a dose that's high enough to be effective. As a consequence, it can't be stressed enough, the importance of dividing the dose through the day in order to reduce the severity of side effects. Although Strattera has been studied and approved by the United States FDA at a frequency of one daily dose, the relatively short duration of the atomoxetine molecule in the human body means that many people will experience greater effectiveness with fewer and less severe side effects if the total daily dose is divided and taken twice a day.

Who should not take Strattera

You should not take Strattera if you suffer from pheochromocytoma or narrow angle glaucoma. Strattera can exacerbate heart-related complications in those with a history of heart disease. Therefore, it should not be taken by anyone with high blood pressure, angina or any history of heart problems. You should also not take it if you are currently taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) such as Nardil (phenelzine), Marplan (isocarboxazid), Parnate (tranylcypromine) or Emsam (selegeline transdermal system). People with a family history of mental health issues should also avoid taking Strattera.

Side effects of Strattera

The most common side effects reported in adults are Nausea, Dry mouth, Appetite loss, Insomnia, Fatigue and Headache. In most cases, the side effects are not severe and can be reduced by reducing the dosage. In clinical trials, only a small percentage of the participant needed to stop taking the drug altogether. Allergic reactions to Strattera including swelling and hives have been reported but are extremely rare. Stop using Strattera immediately if you develop a skin rash, swelling, hives or any other allergic reaction. Stop taking Strattera if you develop any signs of jaundice such as yellowing of the skin or the whites of your eyes. Jaundice can be a sign of liver damage. Itching, dark urine, upper belly pain and unexplained flu-like symptoms can also be signs of liver injury.

Nootropil

Nootropil (generic name: PIRACETAM) is a nootropic agent, meaning it improves mental functions such as attention, cognition, concentration, memory and motivation. It is extremely safe to use with no sedative, addictive or CNS stimulating effects. Exactly how piracetam and other nootropics work is not yet fully understood. However, it is known that piracetam has an effect on the users metabolism and improves oxygen transportation, which enhances cognition. One of the more intriguing effects of piracetam is it's ability to promote the flow of information between the right and left parts of the brain. It's known that enhansed communication between the two sides of the brain is associated with flashes of creativity.

This could also be the basis for piracetam's usefulness in the treatment of the reading disorder, dyslexia. The effect of piracetam can be further increased if it's taken with DMAE or choline. When piracetam and choline are combined, there is a synergistic effect which causes a greater improvement in memory than the sum of each when taken separately. A small amount of users report feeling slightly agitated and mildly depressed when taking piracetam for more than a week without a choline supplement. These feelings can be alleviated quickly with a single dose of choline. It's possible that piracetam causes acetyl-choline to be used up more quickly than usual so supplementing with choline may help to replenish this important neurotransmitter.

Dosage:

800mg - 1200mg three times daily to start off with. This initial dosage should be carried on for 1 - 2 months before the dosage is gradually reduced to 400mg - 600mg three times a day. Piracetam takes effect within 30 to 60 minutes and the elimination half life is 6 hours.

Contraindications:

Not recommended for pregnant or nursing women. Not recommended in combination with other study drugs.

Cautions:

Users suffering from renal disorders should take piracetam with caution & in lowered dosages.

Interactions:

No drug interactions with commonly consumed pharmaceutical products have been found to date and piracetam does not interfere with the users ability to drive or operate machinery.

Overdose:

There has been no reported cases of piracetam overdose to date.

Side Effects:

On rare occasions and usually from taking too high a dose, users of piracetam may experience minor side effects such as upset stomach, gas, headache or insomnia. Lowering the dose is usually effective in offsetting any side effects.

Ritalin

Ritalin (generic name: METHYLPHENIDATE) is the most commonly prescribed psychostimulant and is indicated in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, although off-label uses include treating lethargy, depression, neural insult and obesity. It's one of the most sought after study drugs by students. It's a moderate central nervous system stimulant thought to exert its effect by enhancing dopaminergic transmission in the brain.

Therapeutic uses

Ritalin is the most commonly prescribed psychostimulant and works by increasing the activity of the central nervous system. It produces such effects as increasing or maintaining alertness, combating fatigue, and improving attention.

Narcolepsy

Narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder characterized by overwhelming daytime drowsiness and sudden attacks of sleep, is treated primarily with stimulants. Ritalin is effective in increasing wakefulness, vigilance, and performance.

Adverse effects

The most common side effects of Ritalin are nervousness and insomnia. Other reactions include hypersensitivity (including skin rash, urticaria, fever, arthralgia, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme with histopathological findings of necrotizing vasculitis, and thrombocytopenic purpura); anorexia; nausea; dizziness; palpitations; headache; dyskinesia; drowsiness; blood pressure and pulse changes, both up and down; tachycardia; angina; cardiac arrhythmia; abdominal pain; and weight loss during prolonged therapy. Very rare effects include reports of Tourette's syndrome, toxic psychosis, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

Important information about Ritalin

Use caution when driving, operating machinery, or performing other hazardous activities. Ritalin may cause dizziness, blurred vision, or restlessness, and it may hide the symptoms of extreme tiredness. If you experience these effects, avoid hazardous activities.

Ritalin is habit forming. You can become physically and psychologically dependent on this medication, and withdrawal effects may occur if you stop taking it suddenly after several weeks of continuous use. Talk to your doctor about stopping this medication gradually. Do not crush, chew, or open any "once-daily" Ritalin tablets or capsules. Swallow them whole.

Who should not take Ritalin?

You cannot take Ritalin if you:

- have heart disease or high blood pressure;
- have arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries);
- have glaucoma;
- have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate), or phenelzine (Nardil) in the last 14 days; or
- have a history of drugs or alcohol abuse.
- are currently using study drugs of the psychostimulant type

Before taking this medication, tell your doctor if you have:

- problems with your thyroid,
- an anxiety disorder,
- epilepsy or another seizure disorder, or
- diabetes.

You may not be able to take Ritalin, or you may require a lower dose or special monitoring during treatment if you have any of the conditions listed above.

It is not known whether Ritalin will harm an unborn baby. Do not take Ritalin without first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant. It is also not known whether Ritalin passes into breast milk. Do not take Ritalin without first talking to your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How should Ritalin be taken?

Take Ritalin exactly as directed by your doctor. If you do not understand these directions, ask your pharmacist, nurse, or doctor to explain them to you.

Take each dose with a full glass of water. Phendimetrazine is either taken once a day (sustained release formula) or two to three times daily (immediate-release formula) before meals on an empty stomach.

Do not take Ritalin in the evening because it may cause insomnia. Do not take it at the same time as any other study drugs or CNS stimulants.

Do not crush, chew, or open any "once-daily" phendimetrazine tablets or capsules. Swallow them whole. Never take more of this medication than is prescribed for you. Too much Ritalin could be very dangerous to your health. Store Ritalin at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

What happens if a dose is missed?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. However, if it is almost time for your next dose or if it is already evening, skip the missed dose and take only your next regularly scheduled dose. A dose taken too late in the day will cause insomnia. Do not take a double dose of this medication.

What happens if someone overdoses on Ritalin?

Seek emergency medical attention.

Symptoms of a Ritalin overdose include restlessness, tremor, rapid breathing, confusion, hallucinations, panic, aggressiveness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, an irregular heartbeat, and seizures.

What should be avoided while taking Ritalin?

Use caution when driving, operating machinery, or performing other hazardous activities. Ritalin may cause dizziness, blurred vision, or restlessness, and it may hide the symptoms of extreme tiredness. If you experience these effects, avoid hazardous activities.

Do not take Ritalin late in the day. A dose taken too late in the day can cause insomnia.

Ritalin side effects

If you experience any of the following serious side effects, stop taking Ritalin and seek emergency medical attention:
- an allergic reaction (difficulty breathing; closing of your throat; swelling of your lips, tongue, or face; or hives);
- an irregular heartbeat or very high blood pressure (severe headache, blurred vision); or
- hallucinations, abnormal behavior, or confusion.

Other, less serious side effects may be more likely to occur. Continue to take Ritalin and talk to your doctor if you experience:

- restlessness or tremor,
- nervousness or anxiety,
- headache or dizziness,
- insomnia,
- dry mouth or an unpleasant taste in your mouth,
- diarrhea or constipation, or
- impotence or changes in your sex drive.

Ritalin is habit forming. You can become physically and psychologically dependent on this medication, and withdrawal effects may occur if you stop taking it suddenly after several weeks of continuous use. Talk to your doctor about stopping this medication gradually.

What other drugs will affect Ritalin?

You cannot take Ritalin if you have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate), or phenelzine (Nardil) in the last 14 days. Changes in insulin and other diabetes drug therapies may be necessary during treatment with Ritalin. Do not take any other study drugs in combination with Ritalin.

Methylphenidate should not be prescribed concomitantly with tricyclic antidepressants, such as desipramine, or monoamine oxidase inhibitors, such as phenelzine or tranylcypromine, as methylphenidate may dangerously increase plasma concentrations, leading to potential toxic reactions (mainly, cardiovascular effects). Methylphenidate should not be prescribed to patients who suffer from severe arrhythmia, hypertension or liver damage. It shouldn't be prescribed to patients who demonstrate drug-seeking behaviour, pronounced agitation or nervousness.

Dexedrine

Dexedrine (generic name: DEXTROAMPHETAMINE) is a psychostimulant which is known to produce increased wakefulness and focus in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. It is perhaps the archetypal psycho-stimulant. Alternative study drugs with similar psychoactive properties are often referred to or described as "amphetamine analogues", "amphetamine-like", or having "amphetaminergic" effects. Enantiomerically pure dextroamphetamine is more powerful than racemic amphetamine and has stimulant properties that are similar to those of methamphetamine, but is slightly less potent.

Uses

Clinical

Prescribed for weight loss, depression, fatigue, concentration problems and for nightshift workers and as a study aid.

Experimental

Though such use remains out of the mainstream, dextroamphetamine has been successfully applied in the treatment of certain categories of depression as well as other psychiatric syndromes. Such alternate uses include reduction of fatigue in cancer patients, antidepressant treatment for HIV patients with depression and debilitating fatigue, and early stage physiotherapy for severe stroke victims. If physical therapy patients take dextroamphetamine while they practice their movements for rehabilitation, they learn to move much faster than without dextroamphetamine, and in practice sessions with shorter lengths.

Military

The U.S. Air Force uses Dexedrine as one of its two "go pills," given to pilots on long missions to help them remain focused and alert. (Conversely, the Air Force also issues "no-go pills"; prescription sedatives used after the mission to calm down. The Tarnak Farm incident was linked by media reports to the long term use of Dexedrine by fatigued pilots. A military tribunal did not accept this explanation, citing the lack of similar incidents. Newer stimulant medications with fewer side effects, like Modalert are being investigated and sometimes issued for this reason.

Illicit

Along with Adderall and Ritalin, non-prescription use of dextroamphetamine has been reported for the feeling of elation (euphoria) and for use as a study aid, social aid and party drug. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, a large percentage of American college students reported illicit stimulant use in 2004.

Famous users

Priscilla Presley used it after Elvis gave it to her to stay awake during class.

The English pop group Dexys Midnight Runners were named after Dexedrine, which was popularly used as a recreational drug among Northern Soul fans at the time.

Johnny Cash is known for having abused dextroamphetamine for the majority of his career. Cash frequently mentions this abuse in his 1997 autobiography.

Waylon Jennings is known to have used Dexedrine during his early career, before switching to cocaine. He describes its use and his addiction in depth in his 1996 autobiography.

In the Beatles Anthology documentary, Paul McCartney says that The Beatles used it during their early days to endure hours of playing at clubs in Hamburg, Germany.

Hugh Hefner has spoken openly about his usage.

Contraindications

Dextroamphetamine treatment along with MAO inhibitors is strongly contraindicated. Treatment should also be avoided in patients suffering from physical health conditions including cardiovascular diseases, hypertensive disease, hyperthyroidism, glaucoma and anorexia.

Treating patients with a substantial history of drug abuse is strongly inadvisable. However, it has been reported that people with undiagnosed adult ADD may actually abstain from further drug abuse, as they may have been self-medicating in order to control their undiagnosed ADD.

Caution should be taken when treating chronically depressed or bipolar patients for an irrelevant condition, as in depressed patients the initial psychological state of pride and optimism with an absence of depression may provoke abuse, while bipolar patients could go into a manic state.

The active ingredient of Dexedrine is one of the four active compounds in Adderall so these should not be taken together. In actual fact, it would be wise to avoid mixing it with any of the other study drugs.

Side Effects

Dexedrine use, either for recreational or medical use, can induce many different effects as shown below. In general any negative effects are increased with an increasing dosage amount. If used at standard medical dosages, there are relativly few serious associated adverse effects. (Unless dextroamphetamine is contraindicated with another drug one is taking.)

Physical effects

Physical effects of dextroamphetamine can include a reduced appetite, anorexia, hyperactivity, dilated pupils, flushing, restlessness, dry mouth, headache, tachycardia, bradycardia, tachypnea, hypertension, fever, diaphoresis, diarrhea, constipation, blurred vision, aphasia, dizziness, twitches, insomnia, numbness, palpitations, arrhythmias and tremors. In high doses or chronic use convulsions, dry or itchy skin, acne, pallor can occur. With high chronic dosages, a myocardial infarction (heart attack) can occur.

Psychological effects

Psychological effects of dextroamphetamine can include anxiety (by increased norepinephrine), euphoria (by increased dopamine), altered libido, increased awareness, alertness, concentration, energy, excitability, sociability, irritability, aggression, psychomotor agitation, self-confidence, feeling of power or superiority, repetitive behaviors, paranoia and typically in high doses and/or chronic use, amphetamine psychosis. A serene calming sensation (in association with bradycardia) can also be induced by dextroamphetamine.

Withdrawal effects

Withdrawal symptoms from Dexedrine primarily consist of mental fatigue, mental depression and an increased appetite. Symptoms may last for days with occasional abuse and weeks or months with chronic abuse or chronic medicinal use with severity dependant on the length of time and the size of doses taken. Withdrawal symptoms may also include anxiety, agitation, excessive sleep, vivid or lucid dreams (deep REM sleep), suicidal thoughts and psychosis.

Adderall

Adderall (generic name: AMPHETAMINE) is a brand-name pharmaceutical psychostimulant composed of mixed amphetamine salts, which is thought to work by increasing the amount of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain. Adderall is widely reported to increase alertness, concentration and overall cognitive performance while decreasing user fatigue.

It is available in two formulations: immediate release and extended release. Specifically, Adderall XR is composed of the following proportions of active ingredients:

- 1/4 dextroamphetamine saccharate
- 1/4 dextroamphetamine sulfate
- 1/4 (racemic dextro/levo-amphetamine) aspartate monohydrate
- 1/4 (racemic dextro/levo-amphetamine) sulfate

These four salts are metabolized at different rates and possess diverse half lives, therefore resulting in a less dramatic onset and termination of therapeutic action, as compared to single-salt amphetamine preparations.

The average elimination half-life in adults for dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine is 10 hours and 13 hours respectively. Breakdown rates are affected by many factors including urinary and stomach pH, weight, gender, other medications being taken, and age. Alkalinity increases bioavailability and acidity causes the drugs to be excreted sooner. Manufacturers claim that the mixture of salts in Adderall XR makes its effects smoother (that is, makes softer highs and lows); however, there is little support for this claim.

Urinary and stomach pH levels can have the strongest effect on DL-amphetamine excretion and absorption. Co-administration of acidic substances (e.g. citric acid) causes an accelerated excretion of DL-amphetamine while co-administration of alkaline agents (e.g. antacids) causes a marked increase in both retention and absorption of amphetamines potentially resulting in dangerously high serum amphetamine levels.

Performance-enhancing use

Adderall is reportedly the most widely used of all the study drugs at many American universities. Adderall is reported to help focus energy and concentration to a much higher level than normal. It enables the user to focus and stay awake. Stories of students writing papers continuously for an unusually long time, or "cramming" all night for an exam with no loss of energy or concentration are common. However, the user reportedly can suffer from drastic side effects the following day if Adderall was used to avoid a normal sleep pattern. "In extreme cases, the drug can cause paranoia, hallucinations and heart attacks." William Frankenberger, psychology professor at University of Wisconsin at Eau Claire, led at a study at the university in 2004 that reported 14% of the campus had abused some form of study drugs, including Adderall. College campuses known to be highly competitive or have a high rate of binge drinking had up to 25% of students who misused an ADHD medication within one year, a survey of students at 119 colleges across the country concluded.
Due to side effects including appetite suppression and weight loss, Adderall has also been used as an off-label drug for obesity.

Dosing and administration

Adderall is marketed as either an immediate-release tablet, Adderall, or an extended-release capsule, Adderall XR. Doses of immediate-release Adderall are available in 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 20, and 30 mg. Adderall XR is available in 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mg doses.

Adderall XR utilizes the Microtrol extended-release delivery system, incorporating two types of beads. The first dissolves immediately, releasing half of the medication, while the second type dissolves much more slowly releasing the remaining medication four hours later. Maximum plasma concentration is achieved in seven hours, compared to instant-release Adderall, which reaches maximum plasma concentration within three hours. As a result of its high bioavailability, Adderall XR's effectiveness is not altered by food absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. However, mean plasma concentration is prolonged by 2.5 hours (using a 900 calorie standard high-fat meal as the control). Medications that alter urinary pH will cause variations in amount and method of excretion and usage should be monitored when taken concurrently with Adderall.

Side effects

Adderall Prolonged Use

Tolerance, extreme psychological dependence, and severe social disability can occur when amphetamines are abused. The manufacturer warns against exceeding the prescribed dosage, injecting the drug, or insufflation of the drug. Prolonged high doses of amphetamines followed by an abrupt cessation can result in extreme fatigue and mental depression. Chronic abuse of amphetamines can result in the manifestation of amphetamine psychosis.

Stop using Adderall if you experience any of these serious side effects:

- fast, pounding, or uneven heartbeats;
- feeling light-headed, fainting;
- increased blood pressure (severe headache, blurred vision, trouble concentrating, chest pain, numbness, seizure); or
- tremor, restlessness, hallucinations, unusual behavior, or motor tics (muscle twitches).

Less serious side effects may include:

- headache or dizziness;
- sleep problems (insomnia);
- dry mouth or an unpleasant taste in your mouth;
- diarrhea, constipation;
- loss of appetite, weight loss; or
- loss of interest in sex, impotence, or difficulty having an orgasm.

Contraindications, interactions, and precautions

The following provides only general guidelines and is not comprehensive. Please refer to a more comprehensive list for further information regarding co-administration of amphetamine with other substances.

- SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, e.g., Fluoxetine, Citalopram, Paroxetine, etc.)
While rare, the possibility for serotonin syndrome exists with this combination. Use only when it is directed.

- NRIs (norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, e.g., Atomoxetine, Strattera, etc.)
NRI medications and amphetamine both enhance noradrenergic activity. Possible augmentation/potentiation of effects. Use only when directed.

- SNRIs (selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors).